Preparation before welding

The preparation work before welding is as important as the welding process, which is directly related to the welding quality and effect of the finished product.


1. Electrode drying

The purpose of drying the electrode before welding is to remove the moisture in the wet electrode and reduce the hydrogen in the molten pool and weld to prevent pores and cold cracks. The drying process of electrodes with different coating types is different, and the drying process is carried out according to the process specified in the instruction manual of the electrode. It is recommended to dry according to the package instructions of Tianqiao welding electrodes.


2. Cleaning before welding

It refers to the removal of oil, rust, paint and water on the surface of the joint groove and its vicinity (within about 50mm) before welding. When welding with alkaline electrodes, the cleaning requirements are strict and thorough, otherwise pores and delayed cracks are easily generated. Acid electrodes are not very sensitive to rust. If the rust is relatively light and the quality of the weld is not high, it may not be removed.


3. Preheating

It refers to the process measures to properly heat the whole or part of the weldment before welding. Its main purpose is to reduce the cooling rate of the joint after welding, avoid the generation of hardened structure, and reduce welding stress and deformation. It is an effective way to prevent welding cracks. The need for preheating and the level of preheating temperature depend on the properties of the base metal, the electrode used and the restraint of the joint.

For general structures of low-rigid low-carbon steels and low-alloy high-strength steels with lower strength levels, preheating is generally not required. However, for structures with high rigidity or poor weldability that are prone to cracks, preheating is required before welding. Welding materials with high thermal conductivity, such as copper, aluminum and their alloys, sometimes require preheating, which can reduce the welding current and increase the penetration depth, and also facilitate the fusion of the weld metal and the base metal.

It must be pointed out that preheat welding is not only energy consumption, low productivity, but also poor labor conditions. Welding should be done without preheating or low temperature preheating whenever possible. The use of low hydrogen type electrodes can reduce the preheating temperature, because of its good crack resistance, but the water content of the electrode must be very low. As long as it is allowed, the electrode can be selected according to the principle of low combination, that is, the strength of the deposited metal is lower than that of the base metal, and the plasticity and toughness of the electrode are better than that of the base metal for welding, so that the preheating temperature can be reduced or no preheating can be used.

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Post time: Feb-25-2022

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